stimulate private investment in new, useful and non-obvious
technological information (inventions) through the granting of
exclusive property rights to the patent holder. 

1. What is a patent?

 The subject matter of patent is the invention or discovery of any
new and useful process, machine, manufacture or composition of matter,
or any new and useful improvement of a previously existing process,
machine, manufacture or composition of matter.  Patents may also
protect ornamental features (designs) rather than the function of

 Invention is the absolute prerequisite to patentability, and
it is defined as the finding out, contriving, or creating, by the
action of intellect, of something not existing or not known before.

 For an invention to be patentable, the invention must be:

 1. New, which means that the person applying for the patent
must be the original inventor of the object claimed, and that the
invention must not have been known or used by others before the
discovery of it; and

 2. Useful, which means that the invention must be capable of being beneficially used for the purpose for which it is designed; and

 3. Non-obvious, which means that for an invention to be
patentable it must, at the time of the invention or discovery, be an
improvement over the prior art which would not be obvious to a person
of ordinary skill in that art.

2. Who holds the property rights?

 The first inventor holds the property rights.

 o In the United States, the first person to invent the claimed subject matter may apply for and receive a patent.

 o Note:  The first person to file an application for a patent may
not receive that patent if it can be proven that that person is not the
first person to invent the claimed subject matter.

 Where more than one person is the inventor, all of the inventors hold the property rights.

 Patents may be sold, assigned, willed or otherwise transferred to
people other than the inventor or  inventors of record.  Upon the
filing of the appropriate documents of assignment with the Patent and
Trademark Office, the assignee obtains all of the rights and
limitations granted to the inventor.

3. When do rights vest?

 A new, useful and non-obvious invention becomes eligible for patent registration when it is both:

 1. Conceived, which occurs at the time the inventor has
formulated and disclosed a complete idea for a product, process or
composition, and the resulting invention is made sufficiently plain to
enable those skilled in the art to understand it; and

 2. Reduced to practice, which occurs at the time the invention is perfected, successfully performed, and adapted to actual use.

4. What are the rights/limitations?

 The issuance of a patent grants to the inventor (the patent registrant), for a limited term, the right to exclude others from:

 o Making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention
throughout the United States, or importing the invention into the
United States; and

 o If the invention is a process, the right to exclude others from
using, offering for sale, or selling throughout the United States, or
importing into the United States, products made by that process.

 A "utility" patent (defined below) generally provides up to 20
years of exclusive rights from the time the patent application was

 A "design" patent (defined below) has a term of 14 years from the time the patent is granted.

 Practical Patent Considerations

 o "Utility" and "design" patents:  There are two basic types
of patents: utility and design patents.  The utility patent is the most
frequently acquired patent, with the word "patent" being regularly used
as meaning "utility patent."  The utility patent's subject matter
includes machines, industrial processes, composition of matter and
articles of manufacture.  Utility patents might also be appropriate to
protect new tools and machines used in creating new materials, methods
or techniques for manufacturing new products. 

  A design patent protects any new, original and non-obvious
ornamental design for an article of manufacture.  The design patent
protects only the appearance of an article, not its structure or utilitarian features. 

 o Complex applications:  Design and utility patent
applications are complex legal documents which are beyond the ability
of most laypersons to prepare.  Thus, it is advisable to consult a
qualified attorney when considering the subject.  Additionally, because
of the complex application process, obtaining a patent can be
expensive.  Design patents are normally less expensive than utility
patents and the prices for either design or utility patents depend upon
the complexity of the invention.

 o Patent searches:  The PTO does not require an inventor to
search the prior recorded files before filing an application; however,
the inventor potentially wastes a lot of money if the invention is not
new and novel.  The total body of information which may be searched
includes published patent applications, books, magazines, technical
manuals, etc.  At a minimum, most searches try to look at the same
resources that will be reviewed by the PTO examiner.  A search may cost
$1000 and above, depending upon the level of research.

 o Patent marking:  Patented products are required to be
marked with the word "Patented" or the phrase "Reg. U.S. Pat. and TM
Off." and the patent's number.  Failure to do so may negate a patent
registrant's right to recover damages from infringement.  If a patent
application is being processed, the applicant may mark the product
"patent pending" or "patent applied for" although protection does not
begin until a patent has been issued.  False or improper use of these
markings is prohibited and may subject the offender to a penalty.

 Further information concerning patents is presented on the Patent and Trademark Office's website by accessing General Information Concerning Patents.  While these materials are helpful, it is advisable to secure qualified legal advice when planning to secure a patent.

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